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Small-scale oxygen distribution patterns in a coral reef
Candy, A.S.; Taylor Parkins, S.K.; van Duyl, F.C.; Mueller, B.; Arts, M.G.I.; Barnes, W.; Carstensen, M.; Scholten, Y.; El-Khaled, Y.C.; Wild, C.; Wegley Kelly, L.; Nelson, C.E.; Sandin, S.A.; Vermeij, M.J.A.; Rohwer, F.; Picioreanu, C.; Stocchi, P.; Haas, A.F. (2023). Small-scale oxygen distribution patterns in a coral reef. Front. Mar. Sci. 10.
In: Frontiers in Marine Science. Frontiers Media: Lausanne. e-ISSN 2296-7745, meer
Peer reviewed article  

Beschikbaar in  Auteurs 

Author keywords
    coral reef; hypoxia; microbial ecology; 3D imagery; hydrodynamics

Auteurs  Top 
  • Candy, A.S., meer
  • Taylor Parkins, S.K.
  • van Duyl, F.C., meer
  • Mueller, B.
  • Arts, M.G.I., meer
  • Barnes, W.
  • Carstensen, M.
  • Scholten, Y.
  • El-Khaled, Y.C.
  • Wild, C.
  • Wegley Kelly, L.
  • Nelson, C.E.
  • Sandin, S.A.
  • Vermeij, M.J.A.
  • Rohwer, F.
  • Picioreanu, C.
  • Stocchi, P., meer
  • Haas, A.F., meer

    One mechanism giving fleshy algae a competitive advantage over corals during reef degradation is algal-induced and microbially-mediated hypoxia (typically less than 69.5 µmol oxygen L−1). During hypoxic conditions oxygen availability becomes insufficient to sustain aerobic respiration in most metazoans. Algae are more tolerant of low oxygen conditions and may outcompete corals weakened by hypoxia. A key question on the ecological importance of this mechanism remains unanswered: How extensive are local hypoxic zones in highly turbulent aquatic environments, continuously flushed by currents and wave surge? To better understand the concert of biological, chemical, and physical factors that determine the abundance and distribution of oxygen in this environment, we combined 3D imagery, flow measurements, macro- and micro-organismal abundance estimates, and experimentally determined biogenic oxygen and carbon fluxes as input values for a 3D bio-physical model. The model was first developed and verified for controlled flume experiments containing coral and algal colonies in direct interaction. We then developed a three-dimensional numerical model of an existing coral reef plot off the coast of Curaçao where oxygen concentrations for comparison were collected in a small-scale grid using fiberoptic oxygen optodes. Oxygen distribution patterns given by the model were a good predictor for in situ concentrations and indicate widespread localized differences exceeding 50 µmol L-1 over distances less than a decimeter. This suggests that small-scale hypoxic zones can persist for an extended period of time in the turbulent environment of a wave- and surge- exposed coral reef. This work highlights how the combination of three-dimensional imagery, biogenic fluxes, and fluid dynamic modeling can provide a powerful tool to illustrate and predict the distribution of analytes (e.g., oxygen or other bioactive substances) in a highly complex system.

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