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Photosynthetically stimulated bioerosion in symbiotic sponges: the role of glycerol and oxygen
Achlatis, M.; van der Zande, R.M.; Webb, A.E.; de Bakker, D.M.; de Nooijer, L.J.; de Goeij, J.M. (2021). Photosynthetically stimulated bioerosion in symbiotic sponges: the role of glycerol and oxygen. Coral Reefs 40(3): 881-891. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00338-021-02091-0
In: Coral Reefs. Springer: Berlin; Heidelberg; New York. ISSN 0722-4028; e-ISSN 1432-0975, meer
Peer reviewed article  

Beschikbaar in  Auteurs 
    NIOZ: NIOZ Open Repository 361433

Author keywords
    Bioerosion; Cliona; Glycerol; Oxygen Photosynthesis; Symbiodiniaceae

Auteurs  Top 
  • Achlatis, M.
  • van der Zande, R.M.
  • Webb, A.E., meer
  • de Bakker, D.M., meer
  • de Nooijer, L.J., meer
  • de Goeij, J.M.

Abstract
    On coral reefs, some of the most aggressivecalcium carbonate eroders are dinoflagellate-hostingsponges of the genus Cliona. Like in other marine taxa, theinfluence of these symbiotic microorganisms on the metabolism of the host sponge, and thereby on erosion of thesurrounding ecosystem, is increasingly acknowledged.Despite elevating pH (and hence carbonate saturationstate), dinoflagellate photosynthesis promotes bioerosionby their hosts. This paradox might be solved by a spatialisolation of photosynthesis from carbonate dissolution, butit remains unknown which mechanism connects thedinoflagellates’ photosynthesis with the sponge’s bioerosion. Here, we simulate the outcomes of photosynthesis intwo separate ways, namely as production of carbon-richcompounds (in this case glycerol) and as an increase inoxygen content. This allows testing their potential toenhance bioerosion rates of sponge holobionts that werepreconditioned under variable photosynthetic regimes. Wefind that glycerol, a commonly shared photosynthate inmarine symbioses, stimulates chemical bioerosion rates inthe dark of photosynthetically impaired sponges. Chemicalbioerosion was all the more limited by availability of sufficient oxygen, while the combination of added glyceroland oxygen boosted chemical bioerosion rates. We arguethat under normal physiological conditions, bioerosion ispromoted by both organic carbon and oxygen production,and we provide evidence for the storage of photosynthatesfor night-time use. We further discuss our findings in thecontext of the current knowledge of the bioerosion mechanism, which we expand by integrating the effects of carbon-rich compounds and oxygen as drivers for bioerosionby Cliona.

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