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Release of cell-free enzymes by marine pelagic fungal strains
Salazar Alekseyeva, K.; Herndl, G.; Baltar, F. (2023). Release of cell-free enzymes by marine pelagic fungal strains. Fungal Biol. 4: 1209265.
In: Fungal Biology. Elsevier: Oxford. ISSN 1878-6146; e-ISSN 1878-6162, meer
Peer reviewed article  

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Author keywords
    marine fungi; cell-free enzymatic activity; kinetics; maximum velocity; half-saturation constant

Auteurs  Top 
  • Salazar Alekseyeva, K.
  • Herndl, G., meer
  • Baltar, F.

    Fungi are ubiquitous organisms that secrete different enzymes to cleave large molecules into smaller ones so that can then be assimilated. Recent studies suggest that fungi are also present in the oceanic water column harboring the enzymatic repertoire necessary to cleave carbohydrates and proteins. In marine prokaryotes, the cell-free fraction is an important contributor to the oceanic extracellular enzymatic activities (EEAs), but the release of cell-free enzymes by marine fungi remains unknown. Here, to study the cell-free enzymatic activities of marine fungi and the potential influence of salinity on them, five strains of marine fungi that belong to the most abundant pelagic phyla (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota), were grown under non-saline and saline conditions (0 g/L and 35 g/L, respectively). The biomass was separated from the medium by filtration (0.2 μm), and the filtrate was used to perform fluorogenic enzymatic assays with substrate analogues of carbohydrates, lipids, organic phosphorus, sulfur moieties, and proteins. Kinetic parameters such as maximum velocity (Vmax) and half-saturation constant (Km) were obtained. The species studied were able to release cell-free enzymes, and this represented up to 85.1% of the respective total EEA. However, this differed between species and enzymes, with some of the highest contributions being found in those with low total EEA, with some exceptions. This suggests that some of these contributions to the enzymatic pool might be minimal compared to those with higher total EEA. Generally, in the saline medium, the release of cell-free enzymes degrading carbohydrates was reduced compared to the non-saline medium, but those degrading lipids and sulfur moieties were increased. For the remaining substrates, there was not a clear influence of the salinity. Taken together, our results suggest that marine fungi are potential contributors to the oceanic dissolved (i.e., cell-free) enzymatic pool. Our results also suggest that, under salinity changes, a potential effect of global warming, the hydrolysis of organic matter by marine fungal cell-free enzymes might be affected and hence, their potential contribution to the oceanic biogeochemical cycles.

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