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Seed‐ versus transplant‐based eelgrass (Zostera marinaL.) restoration success in a temperate marine lake
Cronau, R.J.T.; de Fouw, J; van Katwijk, M.M.; Bouma, T.J.; Heusinkveld, J.H.T.; Hoeijmakers, D.; Lamers, L.P.M.; van der Heide, T. (2023). Seed‐ versus transplant‐based eelgrass (Zostera marinaL.) restoration success in a temperate marine lake. Restor. Ecol. 31(1): e13786.
In: Restoration Ecology. Blackwell: Cambridge, Mass.. ISSN 1061-2971; e-ISSN 1526-100X, meer
Peer reviewed article  

Beschikbaar in  Auteurs 

    Arenicola marina (Linnaeus, 1758) [WoRMS]; Platynereis dumerilii (Audouin & Milne Edwards, 1833) [WoRMS]; Zostera subg. Zostera marina Linnaeus, 1753 [WoRMS]
Author keywords
    Arenicola marina; hydrodynamics; leaf gluing; Platynereis dumerilii; sediment working; seedling recruitment; seedling survival; transplant survival; Zostera marina

Auteurs  Top 
  • Cronau, R.J.T.
  • de Fouw, J, meer
  • van Katwijk, M.M.
  • Bouma, T.J., meer
  • Heusinkveld, J.H.T.
  • Hoeijmakers, D.
  • Lamers, L.P.M.
  • van der Heide, T., meer


    Despite active seagrass restoration gaining traction as a tool to halt and reverse worldwide seagrass losses, overall success remains limited. Restoration strategies, through seeding or transplantation, face different environmental bottlenecks that limit success. Choosing the most appropriate strategy of the two for a specific location, however, is hampered by lack of direct practical comparisons between strategies within a single system. To investigate potential life stage dependent bottlenecks, we compared seed-based and transplant-based restoration of Zostera marina in the subtidal saltwater Lake Grevelingen. Our results demonstrate that seedling recruitment was negatively impacted by bioturbation from the lugworm Arenicola marina and sediment movement due to hydrodynamic exposure. Transplant-based restoration was clearly more successful butsurprisingly best predicted by leaf gluing by the ragworm Platynereis dumerilii. This previously undescribed interaction caused seagrass leaves to clump and reduce effective photosynthetic surface and leaf movement. We suggest that the observed behavior of these worms may result from a lack of foodweb interactions, illustrating the importance of trophic control for seagrass restoration. Thus, in addition to recognizing life stage dependent environmental bottlenecks for restoration strategy selection, seagrass restoration may also require the active recovery of their associated food webs.

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