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Can we enhance ecosystem-based coastal defense by connecting oysters to marsh edges? Analyzing the limits of oyster reef establishment
Fivash, G.S.; Stüben, D.; Bachmann, M.; Walles, B.; van Belzen, J.; Didderen, K.; Temmink, R.J.M.; Lengkeek, W.; van der Heide, T.; Bouma, T.J. (2021). Can we enhance ecosystem-based coastal defense by connecting oysters to marsh edges? Analyzing the limits of oyster reef establishment. Ecol. Eng. 165: 106221. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2021.106221
In: Ecological Engineering. Elsevier: Amsterdam; London; New York; Tokyo. ISSN 0925-8574; e-ISSN 1872-6992, meer
Peer reviewed article  

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Trefwoord
    Marien
Author keywords
    Nature-base coastal defense; Bivalve reef; Oyster reef; Artificial reef; Salt marsh; Range extension; Facilitation

Auteurs  Top 
  • Fivash, G.S.
  • Stüben, D.
  • Bachmann, M.
  • Walles, B., meer
  • van Belzen, J., meer
  • Didderen, K.
  • Temmink, R.J.M.
  • Lengkeek, W.
  • van der Heide, T., meer
  • Bouma, T.J., meer

Abstract
    Nature-based coastal defense schemes commonly value bivalve reefs for i) reducing coastal erosion in the intertidal and for ii) forming fringing reefs near salt marsh edges to protect them against lateral retreat. The capacity for a reef to reduce erosion increases at a higher position in the tidal frame as the lower over-lying water level magnifies the influence of the reef on wave attenuation. Unfortunately, ecological constraints on reef development typically limit their practical application in coastal protection schemes to the lower intertidal, as bivalves grow best with long inundation times. In micro-tidal areas this is a lesser problem, given the close proximity of lower and upper intertidal ecosystems in space. By contrast, in meso- and macro-tidal estuaries, bivalve reefs tend to form hundreds of meters away from existing marshes, nullifying any wave-protective benefits. In this study, we produce evidence that with the assistance of management measures, widespread reef formation is possible on open mudflats, including bordering the marsh edge in meso- and macro-tidal estuaries, where natural reef formation is normally strongly limited.

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