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|The hidden threat of heavy metal pollution in high sedimentation and highly dynamic environment: Assessment of metal accumulation rates in the Thi Vai Estuary, Southern Vietnam|Costa-Böddeker, S.; Thuyên, L.X.; Hoelzmann, P.; de Stigter, H.C.; van Gaever, P.; Schwalb, A. (2018). The hidden threat of heavy metal pollution in high sedimentation and highly dynamic environment: Assessment of metal accumulation rates in the Thi Vai Estuary, Southern Vietnam. Environ. Pollut. 242: 348-356. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.05.096
In: Environmental Pollution. Elsevier: Barking. ISSN 0269-7491; e-ISSN 1873-6424, meer
Metal enrichment; Contamination history; Sediment quality guidelines; Coastal areas
|Auteurs|| || Top |
- Costa-Böddeker, S.
- Thuyên, L.X.
- Hoelzmann, P.
- de Stigter, H.C., meer
- van Gaever, P., meer
- Schwalb, A.
Paleoecological assessment is challenging in highly dynamic environments such as estuaries, where sedimentation of material derived from the catchment interferes with marine processes. In this study we analyzed sedimentary heavy metal contents of the last decades to assess the impact of recent industrialization and changes in land use of the Thi Vai Estuary in Southern Vietnam. Two sediment cores (upstream and downstream) were dated using 210Pb, allowing the environmental reconstruction of the last three decades. Considering the recent and fast economic growth of this region these results are suitable for the evaluation of anthropogenic impacts. Mean sedimentation rates (9.2 cm yr−1 upstream, 4.7 cm yr−1downstream) indicate high land erosion likely due to deforestation and dumping of dredged material. Sediment quality guidelines (SQG's) showed that Cr and Cu levels exceed threshold values (TEL) in both cores. Upstream Ni is above the probable effect level (PEL) suggesting risk of potential adverse biological effects. Geo-accumulation (I-geo), enrichment factor (EF) and contamination factor (CF) indices were calculated based on geogenic background values. Most indices show only moderate contamination for different elements, particularly by Cr and Pb. However, considering the historical land use impacts (such as discharge of untreated wastewater, intense agricultural practices, tanning operations, etc.), pollutant concentrations are lower than expected, presumably due to dilution by high sedimentation rates and tidal hydrodynamics. Nonetheless, heavy metal indices and SQG's indicate the ecological condition in the area is of concern, particularly upstream as corroborated by high metal fluxes, highlighting severe impacts in the region.