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Timing avian long-distance migration : from internal clock mechanisms to global flights
Åkesson, S.; Ilieva, M.; Karagicheva, J.; Rakhimberdiev, E.; Tomotani, B.; Helm, B. (2017). Timing avian long-distance migration : from internal clock mechanisms to global flights. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. (B Biol. Sci.) 372(1734): 20160252.
In: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences. Royal Society: London. ISSN 0962-8436; e-ISSN 1471-2970, meer
Peer reviewed article  

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Author keywords
    clock; circannual programmes; orientation; migration strategies; photoperiod; environment

Auteurs  Top 
  • Åkesson, S.
  • Ilieva, M.
  • Karagicheva, J., meer
  • Rakhimberdiev, E., meer
  • Tomotani, B.
  • Helm, B.

    Migratory birds regularly perform impressive long-distance flights, which aretimed relative to the anticipated environmental resources at destination areasthat can be several thousand kilometres away. Timely migration requiresdiverse strategies and adaptations that involve an intricate interplay betweeninternal clock mechanisms and environmental conditions across the annualcycle. Here we review what challenges birds face during long migrations tokeep track of time as they exploit geographically distant resources that mayvary in availability and predictability, and summarize the clock mechanismsthat enable them to succeed.We examine the following challenges: departingin time for spring and autumn migration, in anticipation of future environmentalconditions; using clocks on the move, for example for orientation,navigation and stopover; strategies of adhering to, or adjusting, the timeprogramme while fitting their activities into an annual cycle; and keepingpace with a world of rapidly changing environments. We then elaboratethese themes by case studies representing long-distance migrating birdswith different annual movement patterns and associated adaptations oftheir circannual programmes. We discuss the current knowledge on howendogenous migration programmes interact with external informationacross the annual cycle, how components of annual cycle programmesencode topography and range expansions, and how fitness may be affectedwhen mismatches between timing and environmental conditions occur.Lastly, we outline open questions and propose future research directions.This article ispart of the themedissue ‘Wild clocks: integrating chronobiologyand ecology to understand timekeeping in free-living animals’.

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