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Evaluating model simulations of 20th century sea-level rise. Part 1: global mean sea-level change
Slangen, A.B.A.; Meyssignac, B.; Agosta, C.; Champollion, N.; Church, J.A.; Fettweis, X.; Ligtenberg, S.R.M.; Marzeion, B.; Melet, A.; Palmer, M.D.; Richter, K.; Roberts, C.D.; Spada, G. (2017). Evaluating model simulations of 20th century sea-level rise. Part 1: global mean sea-level change. J. Clim. 30(21): 8539–8563. https://dx.doi.org/10.1175/jcli-d-17-0110.1
In: Journal of Climate. American Meteorological Society: Boston, MA. ISSN 0894-8755, meer
Peer reviewed article  

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Trefwoord
    Marien
Author keywords
    Ocean; Sea level; Climate change; Altimetry; Climate models; Model comparison

Auteurs  Top 
  • Slangen, A.B.A., meer
  • Meyssignac, B.
  • Agosta, C.
  • Champollion, N.
  • Church, J.A.
  • Fettweis, X.
  • Ligtenberg, S.R.M.
  • Marzeion, B.
  • Melet, A.
  • Palmer, M.D.
  • Richter, K.
  • Roberts, C.D.
  • Spada, G.

Abstract
    Sea level change is one of the major consequences of climate change and is projected to affect coastal communities around the world. Here, global mean sea level (GMSL) change estimated by 12 climate models from phase 5 of the World Climate Research Programme’s Climate Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) is compared to observational estimates for the period 1900–2015. Observed and simulated individual contributions to GMSL change (thermal expansion, glacier mass change, ice sheet mass change, landwater storage change) are analyzed and compared to observed GMSL change over the period 1900–2007 using tide gauge reconstructions, and over the period 1993–2015 using satellite altimetry estimates. The model-simulated contributions explain 50% ± 30% (uncertainties 1.65σ unless indicated otherwise) of the mean observed change from 1901–20 to 1988–2007. Based on attributable biases between observations and models, a number of corrections are proposed, which result in an improved explanation of 75% ± 38% of the observed change. For the satellite era (from 1993–97 to 2011–15) an improved budget closure of 102% ± 33% is found (105% ± 35% when including the proposed bias corrections). Simulated decadal trends increase over the twentieth century, both in the thermal expansion and the combined mass contributions (glaciers, ice sheets, and landwater storage). The mass components explain the majority of sea level rise over the twentieth century, but the thermal expansion has increasingly contributed to sea level rise, starting from 1910 onward and in 2015 accounting for 46% of the total simulated sea level change.

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