|Flap or soar? How a flight generalist responds to its aerial environment
Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Bouten, W.; van Loon, E.E.; Meijer, C.; Camphuysen, C.J. (2016). Flap or soar? How a flight generalist responds to its aerial environment. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences 371(1704): 20150395. dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2015.0395
In: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences. ROYAL SOC: London. ISSN 0080-4622, meer
- Shamoun-Baranes, J.
- Bouten, W.
- van Loon, E.E.
- Meijer, C.
- Camphuysen, C.J., meer
The aerial environment is heterogeneous in space and time and directly influences the costs of animal flight. Volant animals can reduce these costs by using different flight modes, each with their own benefits and constraints. However, the extent to which animals alter their flight modes in response to environmental conditions has rarely been studied in the wild. To provide insight into how a flight generalist can reduce the energetic cost of movement, we studied flight behaviour in relation to the aerial environmental and landscape using hundreds of hours of global positioning system and triaxial acceleration measurements of the lesser black-backed gull (Larus fuscus). Individuals differed largely in the time spent in flight, which increased linearly with the time spent in flight at sea. In general, flapping was used more frequently than more energetically efficient soaring flight. The probability of soaring increased with increasing boundary layer height and time closer to midday, reflecting improved convective conditions supportive of thermal soaring. Other forms of soaring flight were also used, including fine-scale use of orographic lift. We explore the energetic consequences of behavioural adaptations to the aerial environment and underlying landscape and implications for individual energy budgets, foraging ecology and reproductive success.This article is part of the themed issue ‘Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight’.