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Passive sampling in regulatory chemical monitoring of nonpolar organic compounds in the aquatic environment
Booij, K.; Robinson, C.D.; Burgess, R.M.; Mayer, P.; Roberts, C.A.; Ahrens, L.; Allan, I.J.; Brant, J.; Jones, L.; Kraus, U.R.; Larsen, M.M.; Lepom, P.; Petersen, J.; Pröfrock, D.; Roose, P.; Schäfer, S.; Smedes, F.; Tixier, C.; Vorkamp, K.; Whitehouse, P. (2016). Passive sampling in regulatory chemical monitoring of nonpolar organic compounds in the aquatic environment. Environ. Sci. Technol. 50(1): 3-17. dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.5b04050
In: Environmental Science and Technology. American Chemical Society: Easton. ISSN 0013-936X, meer
Peer reviewed article  

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  • Booij, K., meer
  • Robinson, C.D.
  • Burgess, R.M.
  • Mayer, P.
  • Roberts, C.A.
  • Ahrens, L.
  • Allan, I.J.
  • Brant, J.
  • Jones, L.
  • Kraus, U.R.
  • Larsen, M.M.
  • Lepom, P.
  • Petersen, J.
  • Pröfrock, D.
  • Roose, P.
  • Schäfer, S.
  • Smedes, F.
  • Tixier, C.
  • Vorkamp, K.
  • Whitehouse, P.

Abstract
    We reviewed compliance monitoring requirements in the EuropeanUnion, the United States, and the Oslo-Paris Convention for the protection of themarine environment of the North-East Atlantic, and evaluated if these are met bypassive sampling methods for nonpolar compounds. The strengths andshortcomings of passive sampling are assessed for water, sediments, and biota.Passive water sampling is a suitable technique for measuring concentrations offreely dissolved compounds. This method yields results that are incompatible withthe EU’s quality standard definition in terms of total concentrations in water, butthis definition has little scientific basis. Insufficient quality control is a presentweakness of passive sampling in water. Laboratory performance studies and thedevelopment of standardized methods are needed to improve data quality and toencourage the use of passive sampling by commercial laboratories and monitoringagencies. Successful prediction of bioaccumulation based on passive sampling iswell documented for organisms at the lower trophic levels, but requires more research for higher levels. Despite the existence ofseveral knowledge gaps, passive sampling presently is the best available technology for chemical monitoring of nonpolar organiccompounds. Key issues to be addressed by scientists and environmental managers are outlined.

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