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|Combining benthic foraminiferal ecology and shell Mn/Ca to deconvolve past bottom water oxygenation and paleoproductivity|Koho, K.A.; de Nooijer, L.J.; Reichart, G.J. (2015). Combining benthic foraminiferal ecology and shell Mn/Ca to deconvolve past bottom water oxygenation and paleoproductivity. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 165: 294-306. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2015.06.003
In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. Elsevier: Oxford,New York etc.. ISSN 0016-7037; e-ISSN 1872-9533, meer
The Mn/Ca of carbonate tests of living deep-sea foraminifera (Hoeglundina elegans, Bulimina aculeata, Uvigerina peregrina and Melonis barleeanus) were determined together with pore water manganese along a bottom water oxygen gradient across the lower boundary of the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone. Although Mn has long been considered an indicator for contamination, new cleaning protocols and high-resolution laser ablation ICP-MS now allow the reliable analyses of test-associated Mn. Within locations, Mn incorporation between species varies as a function of their in-sediment depth preferences and associated pore water chemistry. Under well-oxygenated bottom water conditions, shallow infaunal species incorporate little Mn in their test, whereas the species collected from deeper habitats show elevated Mn concentrations. With decreasing oxygen contents pore water Mn concentrations and benthic foraminiferal in-sediment distribution change. Whereas Mn/Ca in shallow infaunal species responds moderately to bottom water oxygenation, Mn/Ca of the infaunal species M. barleeanus correlates well to oxygenation. Although high productivity results in a shallower redox cline within the sediment, pore water Mn is retained as long as the bottom water remains oxygenated. Under reduced bottom water oxygen conditions, Mn escapes to the overlying water column and test-associated Mn/Ca decreases also in the infaunal species. By combining pore water chemistry of Mn, calcitic Mn/Ca and foraminiferal ecology, a new conceptual model is presented (TROXCHEM3) that provides a framework for deconvolving past organic matter input and bottom water oxygenation.