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Ultra-high resolution pollen record from the northern Andes reveals rapid shifts in montane climates within the last two glacial cycles
Groot, M.H.M.; Bogotá, R.G.; Lourens, L.J.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Vriend, M.; Berrio, J.C.; Tuenter, E.; Van der Plicht, J.; van Geel, B.; Ziegler, M.; Weber, S.L.; Betancourt, A.; Contreras, L.; Gaviria, S.; Giraldo, C.; González, N.; Jansen, J.H.F.; Konert, M.; Ortega, D.; Rangel, O.; Sarmiento, G.; Vandenberghe, J.; Van der Hammen, T.; van der Linden, M.; Westerhoff, W. (2011). Ultra-high resolution pollen record from the northern Andes reveals rapid shifts in montane climates within the last two glacial cycles. Clim. Past 7(1): 299-316
In: Climate of the Past. Copernicus: Göttingen. ISSN 1814-9324; e-ISSN 1814-9332, meer
Peer reviewed article  

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  • Groot, M.H.M.
  • Bogotá, R.G.
  • Lourens, L.J.
  • Hooghiemstra, H.
  • Vriend, M.
  • Berrio, J.C.
  • Tuenter, E.
  • Van der Plicht, J.
  • van Geel, B.
  • Ziegler, M.
  • Weber, S.L.
  • Betancourt, A.
  • Contreras, L.
  • Gaviria, S.
  • Giraldo, C.
  • González, N.
  • Jansen, J.H.F.
  • Konert, M.
  • Ortega, D.
  • Rangel, O.
  • Sarmiento, G.
  • Vandenberghe, J.
  • Van der Hammen, T.
  • van der Linden, M.
  • Westerhoff, W.

Abstract
    Here we developed a composite pollen-based record of altitudinal vegetation changes from Lake Fuquene (5 degrees N) in Colombia at 2540m elevation. We quantitatively calibrated Arboreal Pollen percentages (AP%) into mean annual temperature (MAT) changes with an unprecedented similar to 60-year resolution over the past 284 000 years. An age model for the AP% record was constructed using frequency analysis in the depth domain and tuning of the distinct obliquity-related variations to the latest marine oxygen isotope stacked record. The reconstructed MAT record largely concurs with the similar to 100 and 41-kyr (obliquity) paced glacial cycles and is superimposed by extreme changes of up to 7 to 10 degrees Celsius within a few hundred years at the major glacial terminations and during marine isotope stage 3, suggesting an unprecedented North Atlantic - equatorial link. Using intermediate complexity transient climate modelling experiments, we demonstrate that ice volume and greenhouse gasses are the major forcing agents causing the orbital-related MAT changes, while direct precession-induced insolation changes had no significant impact on the high mountain vegetation during the last two glacial cycles.

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