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|Multi-Ratio Equilibrium Passive Sampling Method to Estimate Accessible and Pore Water Concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Sediment|
Smedes, F.; van Vliet, L.A.; Booij, K. (2013). Multi-Ratio Equilibrium Passive Sampling Method to Estimate Accessible and Pore Water Concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Sediment. Environ. Sci. Technol. 47(1): 510-517
In: Environmental Science and Technology. American Chemical Society: Easton. ISSN 0013-936X; e-ISSN 1520-5851, meer
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- Smedes, F., meer
- van Vliet, L.A.
- Booij, K., meer
The freely dissolved concentration (C-w,C-0) in the pore water and the accessible (releasable) concentration in the sediment (C-as,C-0) are important parameters for risk assessment. These parameters were determined by equilibrating contaminated sediments and passive samplers using largely differing sampler-sediment ratios. This method is based on the principle that incubations at low sampler/sediment ratios yield the concentration in the pore water (minor depletion of the sediment phase) and incubations at high sampler/sediment ratios yield the accessible concentration in the sediment (maximum depletion of the sediment phase). It is shown that equilibration was faster in dense suspensions and at high sampler/sediment ratios when compared to low sampler/sediment ratios. An equilibrium distribution model was used to estimate C-w,C-0 and C-as,C-0 by nonlinear least-squares regression. The method was evaluated three sediments (harbor, estuarine, marine). Accessible concentrations of 13 PAHs were 2 (low K-ow) to 10 (high K-ow) times lower than the total concentrations (three sediments). By contrast, the accessible concentrations of 15 PCBs were about 1.2 times lower than the total concentrations and displayed no trend with K-ow (one sediment). Implications for risk assessment and considerations for application of multi-ratio equilibrium passive sampling with other sediments are discussed.