|Climate-proofing the coast of Zeeland : A GIS-based research into the feasibility of implementing ecosystem-based coastal engineering in Zeeland|
Dubbeldam, T. (2019). Climate-proofing the coast of Zeeland : A GIS-based research into the feasibility of implementing ecosystem-based coastal engineering in Zeeland. BSc Thesis. NIOZ Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research: Yerseke. 84 pp.
The goal of this project is to provide a realistic insight into implementing ecosystem-based coastal defence methods in Zeeland by using current and historical landscape features and comparing the costs and benefits of these coastal defence methods with traditional coastal defence methods.The pilot project that investigated the implementation of ecosystem-based coastal engineering in Zeeland visualized 2 scenario’s using a 200 m and 1000 m buffer. By using the current and historical context a more realistic cost-benefit analysis can be made.The main question is as follows: What are the costs and benefits of traditional coastal defence methods vs. Ecosystem-based defence methods in different climate scenarios?Using waterheights, height maps, dike maps and urban area maps a GIS analysis was done to identify potential areas and link a land-use to each area using height as a key value. The GIS analysis then served as input for the cost-benefit analysis. Key values for the cost-benefit analysis were collected by doing a literature research. The pilot project also contained values for the cost benefit analysis.A total of two different methods of traditional coastal defence systems were modelled: dike heightening and dike widening. Three different methods of ecosystem-based coastal defenses were modelled: a 200 m buffer from the primary dike, a 1000 m buffer from the primary dike and a scenario which used current and historical landscape context. For each scenario the costs and benefits were calculated in multiple scenario’s of sea-level rise.The research concluded that dike heightening was the least cost-effective method of coastal defence. Ecosystem based coastal engineering based on the current and historical context of the landscape emerged as the most cost-effect method of coastal defence. Overall the benefits from aquaculture and energy were crucial as in a sea-level rise scenario with less areas that implemented these land-use types the benefits were significantly lower.It is recommended that more research is done into investigating how sediment dynamics change the land-use over time. It would also be interesting to monetarize ecosystem services so they can be used in the cost-benefit analysis.