|The role of port authorities in the development of LNG bunkering facilities in North European ports|
In: WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs. World Maritime University: Heidelberg. ISSN 1651-436X; e-ISSN 1654-1642
Port authorities LNG Bunkering facilities Multiple-case study North Europe
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Liquefied natural gas (LNG) serves as an attractive fuel for ships to meet the upcoming stringent environmental regulations enacted by IMO, particularly at the level of emission control areas (ECA). The use of LNG promises a good environmental performance and a foreseeable economic viability. However, a general absence of bunkering infrastructure in seaports is a significant barrier currently preventing the breakthrough of the use of LNG as a ship fuel. Against this backdrop, we observe that public port authorities are playing a proactive role in facilitating the use of LNG as a marine fuel. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the role of port authorities in the development of LNG bunkering facilities and to investigate why and how port authorities promote this new application. A multiple-case study approach is adopted to examine the performance of eight North European port authorities in their LNG bunkering projects. The paper provides a deeper understanding of the current port practices in developing LNG bunkering facilities in North Europe and identifies the important role of the evolving port function beyond the tradition model in promoting innovations. The paper also proposes a set of port implementation policies on the facilitation and promotion of the use of LNG as a ship fuel.