|High resolution mass spectrometry-based screening reveals lipophilic toxins in multiple trophic levels from the North Sea|Orellana, G.; Van Meulebroek, L.; De Rijcke, M.; Janssen, C.R.; Vanhaecke, L. (2017). High resolution mass spectrometry-based screening reveals lipophilic toxins in multiple trophic levels from the North Sea. Harmful Algae 64: 30-41. https://hdl.handle.net/10.1016/j.hal.2017.03.005
In: Harmful Algae. Elsevier: Tokyo; Oxford; New York; London; Amsterdam; Shannon; Paris. ISSN 1568-9883; e-ISSN 1878-1470, meer
Lipophilic marine toxins, Biomagnification, Biotransformation, Phytoplankton, Zooplankton, Marine organisms
|Auteurs|| || Top |
- Orellana, G.
- Van Meulebroek, L.
- De Rijcke, M.
- Janssen, C.R.
- Vanhaecke, L.
Lipophilic marine biotoxins, which are mainly produced by small dinoflagellates, are increasingly detected in coastal waters across the globe. As these producers are consumed by zooplankton and shellfish, the toxins are introduced, bioaccumulated and possibly biomagnified throughout marine food chains. Recent research has demonstrated that ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) is an excellent tool to detect marine toxins in algae and seafood. In this study, UHPLC-HRMS was used to screen lipophilic marine biotoxins in organisms from different trophic levels of the Belgian coastal zone ecosystem. A total of 20 tentatively identified lipophilic compounds was detected. Hereby, the trophic transfer of lipophilic marine biotoxins to the upper trophic level was considered to be rather limited. Furthermore, 36% of the compounds was clearly transferred between different organisms. A significant biotransformation of compounds from the okadaic acid and spirolide toxin groups was observed (64%), mainly in filter feeders. Through a multi-targeted approach, this study showed that marine organisms in the Belgian coastal zone are exposed to a multi-toxin mixture. Further research on both single compound and interactive toxic effects of the frequently detected lipophilic marine toxin ester metabolites throughout the food chain is therefore needed. As a future perspective, confirmatory identification of potential toxins by studying their fragmentation spectra (using new tools such as hybrid quadrupole Q-Exactive (TM) Orbitrap-MS) is designated.