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Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) and DR-CALUX for screening coastal Brazilian environments for dioxins and related compounds
Dorneles, P.R.; Lailson-Brito, J.; Bisi, T.L.; Domit, C.; Barbosa, L.A.; Meirelles, A.C.O.; Carvalho, V.L.; Malm, O.; Azevedo, A.F.; Brose, F.; Das, K.; Scippo, M.-L. (2016). Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) and DR-CALUX for screening coastal Brazilian environments for dioxins and related compounds. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 71(3): 336-346. https://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s00244-016-0299-z
In: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. Springer: New York. ISSN 0090-4341; e-ISSN 1432-0703
Peer reviewed article  

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  • Dorneles, P.R.
  • Lailson-Brito, J.
  • Bisi, T.L.
  • Domit, C.
  • Barbosa, L.A.
  • Meirelles, A.C.O.
  • Carvalho, V.L.
  • Malm, O.
  • Azevedo, A.F.
  • Brose, F.
  • Das, K.
  • Scippo, M.-L.

Abstract
    Guiana dolphin is the top predator of highest toxicological concern in Brazil and many studies on levels of persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxicant (PBT) pollutants have been performed on the species. However, due to high costs of the analyses, only one investigation comprised the determination of dioxins and related compounds (DRCs) in Guiana dolphin tissues. The dioxin responsive-chemically activated luciferase gene expression (DR-CALUX®) cell bioassay was used in the present study for the analyses of hepatic samples from 28 male Guiana dolphins in order to screen estuarine environments for DRCs, comprising three regions (Northeastern, Southeastern, and Southern) and four states [Paraná (PR), Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Espírito Santo (ES), and Ceará (CE)] of Brazil. High bioanalytical equivalent (BEQ) concentrations [dioxins (pg BEQ/g lipid)] were found, varying from 1.94 to 15.6 pg BEQ/g. A significant negative correlation between BEQ concentrations and total length was found in Guiana dolphins from Brazil (all analysed dolphins). This pattern also was verified for RJ state, pointing to (1) chemically induced developmental disruption or to (2) increasing efficiency of the detoxifying activity with the growth of the animal. Comparison was performed with literature data and significantly higher BEQ levels were found in Brazilian Guiana dolphins than in those reported for North Sea harbour porpoises. Higher levels were found in Southeastern (the most PBT-contaminated area of the country) than in Southern region. However, it is not possible to affirm that Guiana dolphins are more contaminated by DRCs in SE than in S region, because individuals were lengthier in S than in SE region. Our results seem to have mirrored dolphin exposure to PCBs in Brazil according to the literature. Further studies are required for investigating the hypotheses 1 and 2 mentioned above.

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