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Non-reef environments impact the diversification of extant jacks, remoras and allies (Carangoidei, Percomorpha)
Frédérich, B.; Marramà, G.; Carnevale, G.; Santini, F. (2016). Non-reef environments impact the diversification of extant jacks, remoras and allies (Carangoidei, Percomorpha). Proc. - Royal Soc., Biol. Sci. 283(1842). https://hdl.handle.net/10.1098/rspb.2016.1556
In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B. The Royal Society: London. ISSN 0962-8452; e-ISSN 1471-2954, meer
Peer reviewed article  

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Author keywords
    carangoid fishes; trait evolution; morphospace; disparity; habitatshift; HiSSE

Auteurs  Top 
  • Frédérich, B.
  • Marramà, G.
  • Carnevale, G.
  • Santini, F.

Abstract
    Various factors may impact the processes of diversification of a clade. In the marine realm, it has been shown that coral reef environments have promoted diversification in various fish groups. With the exception of requiem sharks, all the groups showing a higher level of diversity in reefs than in non-reef habitats have diets based predominantly on plankton, algae or benthic invertebrates. Here we explore the pattern of diversification of carangoid fishes, a clade that includes numerous piscivorous species (e.g. trevallies, jacks and dolphinfishes), using time-calibrated phylogenies as well as ecological and morphological data from both extant and fossil species. The study of carangoid morphospace suggests that reef environments played a role in their early radiation during the Eocene. However, contrary to the hypothesis of a reef-association-promoting effect, we show that habitat shifts to non-reef environments have increased the rates of morphological diversification (i.e. size and body shape) in extant carangoids. Piscivory did not have a major impact on the tempo of diversification of this group. Through the ecological radiation of carangoid fishes, we demonstrate that non-reef environments may sustain and promote processes of diversification of different marine fish groups, at least those including a large proportion of piscivorous species.

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