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The radiation of the clownfishes has two geographical replicates
Litsios, G; Pearman, B; Lanterbecq, D.; Tolou, N; Salamin, N (2014). The radiation of the clownfishes has two geographical replicates. J. Biogeogr. 41(11): 2140-2149. dx.doi.org/10.1111/jbi.12370
In: Journal of Biogeography. Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford. ISSN 0305-0270; e-ISSN 1365-2699, meer
Peer reviewed article  

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Trefwoorden
    Amphiprioninae [WoRMS]
    Marien
Author keywords
    Anemonefish; Central Pacific Ocean; diversification; ecologicalspeciation; GeoSSE; Indian Ocean; Indo-Australian Archipelago;mutualism; range expansion

Auteurs  Top 
  • Litsios, G
  • Pearman, B
  • Lanterbecq, D.
  • Tolou, N
  • Salamin, N

Abstract
    AimThe study of adaptive radiations provides an evolutionary perspective on the interactions between organisms and their environment, and is necessary to understand global biodiversity. Adaptive radiations can sometimes be replicated over several disjunct geographical entities, but most examples are found on island or in lakes. Here, we investigated the biogeographical history of the clownfishes, a clade of coral reef fish with ranges that now span most of the Indo-Pacific Ocean, in order to explore the geographical structure of an unusual adaptive radiation. LocationIndian Ocean, Indo-Australian Archipelago (IAA) and Central Pacific Ocean. MethodsWe generated DNA sequence data comprising seven nuclear markers for 27 of the 30 clownfish species. We then inferred a Bayesian phylogeny and reconstructed the biogeographical history of the group using three different methods. Finally, we applied a biogeographical model of diversification to assess whether diversification patterns differ between the Indian and Pacific Oceans. ResultsThe phylogenetic tree is highly supported and allows reconstruction of the biogeographical history of the clade. While most species arose in the IAA, one clade colonized the eastern shores of Africa and diversified there. We found that the diversification rate of clownfishes does not differ between the main radiation and the African clade. Main conclusionsThe clownfishes first appeared and diversified in the IAA. Following a colonization event, a geographically independent radiation occurred in the Indian Ocean off East Africa. This rare example of replicated adaptive radiation in the marine realm provides intriguing possibilities for further research on ecological speciation in the sea.

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