|Nonindigenous marine jellyfish: invasiveness, invisibility and impacts|
Jellyfish blooms; Nonindigenous species; Invasiveness; Invisibility; Ctenophores; Reproductive stategies; Phenotypic plasticity; Anthropogenic disturbance
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The marine jellyfishes (herein referring to pelagic scyphozoans, hydrozoans, and ctenophores) have been increasingly recognized as important nuisance species in ecosystems around the world, impacting fisheries, injuring swimmers, and clogging the intakes of power plants, among other effects. These animals have independently evolved life history and reproductive strategies that allow them to quickly reach large abundances and exert considerable ecological and economic impacts over their native ecosystems. However, many of these same adaptations have also led to the success of marine jellyfishes as bioinvaders, as many have established themselves as important predators in nonnative ecosystems around the globe. Here, we examine the role of marine jellyfishes as nonindigenous species. We begin by reviewing what is known about the invasion histories of the major nonindigenous jellyfishes and then analyze organismal attributes of marine jellyfishes that promote their success as bioinvaders (invasiveness) and characteristics of recipient ecosystems that increase likelihood of successful invasions by marine jellies (invasibility). We conclude by examining how these have interacted to determine which species have bloomed in their recipient ecosystems, exerting significant ecological and economic effects (impacts).