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Development of a sampling and flow injection analysis technique for iron determination in the sea ice environment
Lannuzel, D.; de Jong, J.; Schoemann, V.; Trevena, A.; Tison, J.-L.; Chou, L. (2006). Development of a sampling and flow injection analysis technique for iron determination in the sea ice environment. Anal. Chim. Acta 556(2): 476-483.
In: Analytica Chimica Acta. Elsevier: New York; Amsterdam. ISSN 0003-2670; e-ISSN 1873-4324
Peer reviewed article  

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Author keywords
    Iron; FIA; Sea ice; Direct measurement; Chemiluminescence

Auteurs  Top 
  • Lannuzel, D.
  • de Jong, J.
  • Schoemann, V., meer
  • Trevena, A.
  • Tison, J.-L.
  • Chou, L.

    A trace metal clean method for sampling and analysis of iron is set up and applied to sea ice and its associated snow, brine, and underlying seawater sampled during the Antarctic expedition “ARISE in the East” (Antarctic Remote Ice Sensing Experiment, AA03-V1, September–October 2003, 64–65°S/112–119°E, RV Aurora Australis). For clean sampling, a non-contaminating electropolished stainless steel ice corer is designed in conjunction with a polyethylene lathe equipped with Ti chisels to remove possibly contaminated outer layers of ice cores. A portable peristaltic pump with clean tubing is used on the ice to sample the underlying seawater (interface ice–water = 0, 1 and 30 m) and sea ice brine from access holes. Considering the extreme range of salinities (1–100) and Fe concentrations (0.1–100 nM) previously observed in similar environments, it is of paramount importance to set up a simple and sensitive Fe analyser adapted to such gradients. We use a flow injection analysis (FIA) technique and successfully demonstrate its capability to measure Fe concentrations directly in the sample without an on-line preconcentration/matrix separation step. We test the sensitivity, accuracy, precision and long-term stability of the analytical procedure. Also we explore and remediate interferences from a suite of other trace elements, such as Ni, Cd, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn and Co. Analysis of reference materials NASS-5 and CASS-3 gives a good agreement with the certified values. Repeated measurements over a period of 5 months of an “in-house” Antarctic seawater standard yields a concentration of 1.02 ± 0.07 nM (n = 17, 1s). The detection limit (3s of the blank) is on average 0.12 nM. We report here results of the Fe distribution in sea ice that are in good agreement with previously published data. To our knowledge, this work provides the first complete profiles of total dissolvable and dissolved Fe in sea ice.

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