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Estuarine and coastal structures: Environmental effects, a focus on shore and nearshore structures
Dugan, J.E.; Airoldi, L.; Chapman, M.G.; Walker, S.J.; Schlacher, T. (2011). Estuarine and coastal structures: Environmental effects, a focus on shore and nearshore structures, in: Wolanski, E. et al. (Ed.) Treatise on Estuarine and Coastal Science: 8. Human-induced problems (uses and abuses). pp. 17-41. dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-374711-2.00802-0
In: Wolanski, E. et al. (Ed.) (2011). Treatise on Estuarine and Coastal Science: 8. Human-induced problems (uses and abuses). Elsevier: Amsterdam. ISBN 978-0-12-387763-5. 315 pp.

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  • Dugan, J.E.
  • Airoldi, L.
  • Chapman, M.G.
  • Walker, S.J.
  • Schlacher, T.

Abstract
    Rapidly growing populations and expanding development are intensifying pressures on coastal ecosystems. Sea-level rise and other predicted effects of climate change are expected to exert even greater pressures on coastal ecosystems, exacerbating erosion, degrading habitat, and accelerating shoreline retreat. Historically, society’s responses to threats from erosion and shoreline retreat have relied on armoring and other engineered coastal defenses. Despite widespread use on all types of shorelines, information about the ecological impacts of shoreline armoring is quite limited. Here we summarize existing knowledge on the effects of armoring structures on the biodiversity, productivity, structure, and function of coastal ecoystems.

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