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Changing Arctic Ocean freshwater pathways
Morison, J.I.L.; Kwok, R.; Peralta-Ferriz, C.; Alkire, M.; Rigor, I.; Andersen, R.; Steele, M. (2012). Changing Arctic Ocean freshwater pathways. Nature (Lond.) 481(7379): 66-70. https://hdl.handle.net/10.1038/nature10705
In: Nature: International Weekly Journal of Science. Nature Publishing Group: London. ISSN 0028-0836; e-ISSN 1476-4687, meer
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  • Morison, J.I.L.
  • Kwok, R.
  • Peralta-Ferriz, C.
  • Alkire, M.
  • Rigor, I.
  • Andersen, R.
  • Steele, M.

Abstract
    Freshening in the Canada basin of the Arctic Ocean began in the 1990s(1,2) and continued(3) to at least the end of 2008. By then, the Arctic Ocean might have gained four times as much fresh water as comprised the Great Salinity Anomaly(4,5) of the 1970s, raising the spectre of slowing global ocean circulation(6). Freshening has been attributed to increased sea ice melting(1) and contributions from runoff(7), but a leading explanation has been a strengthening of the Beaufort High-a characteristic peak in sea level atmospheric pressure(2,8)-which tends to accelerate an anticyclonic (clockwise) wind pattern causing convergence of fresh surface water. Limited observations have made this explanation difficult to verify, and observations of increasing freshwater content under a weakened Beaufort High suggest that other factors(2) must be affecting freshwater content. Here we use observations to show that during a time of record reductions in ice extent from 2005 to 2008, the dominant freshwater content changes were an increase in the Canada basin balanced by a decrease in the Eurasian basin. Observations are drawn from satellite data (sea surface height and ocean-bottom pressure) and in situ data. The freshwater changes were due to a cyclonic (anticlockwise) shift in the ocean pathway of Eurasian runoff forced by strengthening of the west-to-east Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation characterized by an increased Arctic Oscillation(9) index. Our results confirm that runoff is an important influence on the Arctic Ocean and establish that the spatial and temporal manifestations of the runoff pathways are modulated by the Arctic Oscillation, rather than the strength of the wind-driven Beaufort Gyre circulation.

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