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A time-calibrated multi-gene phylogeny of the diatom genus Pinnularia
Souffreau, C.; Verbruggen, H.; Wolfe, A. P.; Vanormelingen, P.; Siver, P. A.; Cox, E. J.; Mann, D. G.; Van de Vijver, B.; Sabbe, K.; Vyverman, W. (2011). A time-calibrated multi-gene phylogeny of the diatom genus Pinnularia. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 61(3): 866-879. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2011.08.031
In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. Elsevier: Orlando, FL. ISSN 1055-7903; e-ISSN 1095-9513
Peer reviewed article  

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Trefwoorden
    Bacillariophyceae [WoRMS]; Pinnularia C.G. Ehrenberg, 1843 [WoRMS]; Zoet water
Author keywords
    Molecular phylogenetics; Relaxed molecular clock; Fossil record; Raphid diatoms; Pinnularia; Bacillariophyceae; Eocene

Auteurs  Top 
  • Souffreau, C.
  • Verbruggen, H.
  • Wolfe, A. P.
  • Vanormelingen, P.
  • Siver, P. A.
  • Cox, E. J.
  • Mann, D. G.
  • Van de Vijver, B.
  • Sabbe, K.
  • Vyverman, W.

Abstract
    Pinnularia is an ecologically important and species-rich genus of freshwater diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) showing considerable variation in frustule morphology. Interspecific evolutionary relationships were inferred for 36 Pinnularia taxa using a five-locus dataset. A range of fossil taxa, including newly discovered Middle Eocene forms of Pinnularia, was used to calibrate a relaxed molecular clock analysis and investigate temporal aspects of the genus’ diversification. The multi-gene approach resulted in a well resolved phylogeny of three major clades and several subclades that were frequently, but not universally, delimited by valve morphology. The genus Caloneis was not recovered as monophyletic, confirming that, as currently delimited, this genus is not evolutionarily meaningful and should be merged with Pinnularia. The Pinnularia–Caloneis complex is estimated to have diverged between the Upper Cretaceous and the early Eocene, implying a ghost range of at least 10 million year (Ma) in the fossil record.

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