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Chemical and mineralogical evidence of the occurrence of mantle metasomatism by carbonate-rich melts in an oceanic environment (Santiago Island, Cape Verde)
Martins, S.; Mata, J.; Munha, J.; Mendes, M.H.; Maerschalk, C.; Caldeira, R.; Mattielli, N. (2010). Chemical and mineralogical evidence of the occurrence of mantle metasomatism by carbonate-rich melts in an oceanic environment (Santiago Island, Cape Verde). Mineral. Petrol. 99(1-2): 43-65. dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00710-009-0078-x
In: Mineralogy and Petrology. Springer: Wien; New York. ISSN 0930-0708; e-ISSN 1438-1168
Peer reviewed article  

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  • Martins, S.
  • Mata, J.
  • Munha, J.
  • Mendes, M.H.
  • Maerschalk, C.
  • Caldeira, R.
  • Mattielli, N.

Abstract
    Lavas from Santiago Island attest to a complex magmatic history, in which heterogeneous mantle source(s) and the interactions of advecting magmas with thick metasomatised oceanic lithosphere played an important role in the observed isotopic and trace element signatures. Young (<3.3 Ma) primitive lavas from Santiago Island are characterised by pronounced negative K anomalies and trace element systematics indicating that during partial melting D(K)>D(Ce). These features suggest equilibration with an oceanic lithospheric mantle containing K-rich hydrous mineral assemblages, consistent with the occurrence of amphibole + phlogopite in associated metasomatised lherzolite xenoliths, where orthopyroxene is partially replaced by newly formed olivine + ( CO2 + spinel + carbonate inclusion-rich) clinopyroxene. Metasomatism induced a decrease in aSiO2melt and Ti/Eu ratios, as well as an increase in fO2, Ca/Sc and Sr/Sm in the Santiago magmas, suggesting a carbonatitic composition for the metasomatic agent. Santiago primitive lavas are highly enriched in incompatible elements and show a moderate range in isotopic compositions (87Sr/86Sr=0.70318-0.70391, 143Nd/144Nd=0.51261-0.51287, 176Hf/177Hf=0.28284-0.28297). Elemental and isotopic signatures suggest the involvement of HIMU and EM1-type mantle end-members, in agreement with the overall isotopic characteristics of the southern Cape Verde Islands. The overall geochemical characteristics of lavas from Santiago Island allow us to consider the EM1-like end-member as resulting from the involvement of subcontinental lithospheric mantle in the genesis of magmas on Santiago.

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