|Estimation of the attachment strength of the shingle sea urchin, Colobocentrotus atratus, and comparison with three sympatric echinoids|Santos, R.; Flammang, P. (2008). Estimation of the attachment strength of the shingle sea urchin, Colobocentrotus atratus, and comparison with three sympatric echinoids. Mar. Biol. (Berl.) 154(1): 37-49. dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-007-0895-6
In: Marine Biology. Springer: Heidelberg; Berlin. ISSN 0025-3162; e-ISSN 1432-1793, meer
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The peculiar limpet-like morphology of the genus Colobocentrotus is unique among the regular echinoids. This shape has been interpreted as an adaptation to life in areas of extreme wave exposure. In this study the attachment strength of C. atratus is compared with that of three sympatric species, Echinometra mathaei, Heterocentrotus trigonarius and Stomopneustes variolaris, which have more typical echinoid morphology and live in different microhabitats. For each species, the adhesion of individual sea urchins was measured as well as the tenacity of single tube foot and the mechanical properties of the tube foot stems. Colobocentrotus always presented the highest measured values, although not always significantly different from those of the other species. Of the mechanical properties of the stem measured, the stem extensibility was the only property that was significantly different among species. In general the stems of all the species studied became more extensible and more difficult to break with increasing strain rate, providing an adaptative advantage to the sea urchin when subjected to rapid loads such as waves. In terms of single tube foot tenacity, C. atratus tube feet attached with a tenacity (0.54 MPa) two times higher than the one of E. mathaei, H. trigonarius and S. variolaris (0.21-0.25 MPa). Individual sea urchins of the four species, however, attached with a similar strength (0.2-0.26 MPa). The calculation of safety factors showed that it is the very high number of adoral tube feet of C. atratus and not the overall shape of the animal that allows this species to withstand very high water velocities. However, C. atratus streamlined morphology may be a functional adaptation to reduce the impact of other hydrodynamic forces (such as wave impingement forces) or to cope with other selective environmental stresses (such as dessication), and thus to inhabit extremely exposed areas of the intertidal.