nieuwe zoekopdracht
[ meld een fout in dit record ]mandje (0): toevoegen | toon Print deze pagina

Further insight on carapid - holothuroid relationships
Parmentier, E.; Vandewalle, P. (2005). Further insight on carapid - holothuroid relationships. Mar. Biol. (Berl.) 146(3): 455-465.
In: Marine Biology. Springer: Heidelberg; Berlin. ISSN 0025-3162; e-ISSN 1432-1793, meer
Peer reviewed article  

Beschikbaar in  Auteurs 


Auteurs  Top 
  • Parmentier, E.
  • Vandewalle, P.

    Carapidae (or pearlfish) are eel-like fishes that live inside different invertebrates, such as holothurians, sea stars, or bivalves. Those of the genus Carapus are commensal and use their host as a shelter, while Encheliophis species are parasitic and eat the host's gonads. In areas where they live in sympatry, C. boraborensis, C. homei, C. mourlani and E. gracilis are able to inhabit the same host species. Infestation is considered as monospecific when several conspecifics are observed in the same host. However, many aspects of this particular relation remain obscure, e.g. communication between carapids and the defence systems of the different protagonists (carapids and hosts). Experiments have been conducted in the field and laboratory to investigate several aspects of the carapids' relationships with their hosts. Sampling carried out in the Bay of Opunohu (Moorea, French Polynesia) determined the sex ratio of C. boraborensis (3:1) and C. homei (1:1) and their distribution rate within different Echinodermata. Our study showed that neither species was capable of determining whether a heterospecific already occupied a sea cucumber or not. They were, however, able to locate the sea cucumber's cloaca, due to the excurrent resulting from respiration. The sea cucumber's defence system (Cuverian tubules) minimises predator attacks, but is not effective against carapid intrusion. The Carapidae defence system is twofold. Due to a passive system related to the sea cucumber's low cloacal position, the Cuverian tubules are not expelled when fish enter the cloaca. Moreover, carapids resist sea cucumber toxins better than other reef fish. Their increased resistance might be related to their gills rather than to their mucus coating; however, the latter may assist the fish in resisting the sticky substances emitted by the Cuverian tubules.

Alle informatie in het Integrated Marine Information System (IMIS) valt onder het VLIZ Privacy beleid Top | Auteurs 
IMIS is ontwikkeld en wordt gehost door het VLIZ, voor meer informatie contacteer .