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Distributions of dissolved and particulate iron in the sub-Antarctic and Polar Frontal Southern Ocean (Australian sector)
Lannuzel, D.; Bowie, A.R.; Remenyi, T.; Lam, P.; Townsend, A.; Ibisanmi, E.; Butler, E.; Wagener, T.; Schoemann, V. (2011). Distributions of dissolved and particulate iron in the sub-Antarctic and Polar Frontal Southern Ocean (Australian sector). Deep-Sea Res., Part II, Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 58(21-22): 2094-2112. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2011.05.027
In: Deep-Sea Research, Part II. Topical Studies in Oceanography. Pergamon: Oxford. ISSN 0967-0645; e-ISSN 1879-0100, meer
Peer reviewed article  

Beschikbaar in  Auteurs 

Trefwoord
    Marien
Author keywords
    Iron; Distributions; Macro-nutrients; Biogeochemistry; Southern Ocean

Auteurs  Top 
  • Lannuzel, D.
  • Bowie, A.R.
  • Remenyi, T.
  • Lam, P.
  • Townsend, A.
  • Ibisanmi, E.
  • Butler, E.
  • Wagener, T.
  • Schoemann, V., meer

Abstract
    This paper presents iron (Fe) profiles in the upper 1000 m from nine short-term (transect) stations and three long-term (process) stations occupied in the Australian sector of the Southern Ocean during the SAZ-Sense expedition in austral summer (January-February) 2007. Strong vertical and horizontal gradients in Fe concentrations were observed between the 18 sampled profiles (i.e. 0.09-0.63 nmol/l dissolved Fe (dFe)). Average dFe concentrations in surface gggwaters in the northern Sub-Antarctic Zone (SAZ-N) West (station P1) were 0.27 +/- 0.04 nmol/l. This is lower in the SAZ-N East region (station P3 and around) where average dFe values in the mixed layer were 0.48 +/- 0.10 nmol/l. The Polar Front (PF) station (P2) exhibited the lowest average surface Fe values (i.e., 0.22 +/- 0.02 nmol/l). Iron concentrations in deep waters down to 1000 m were more uniform (0.25-0.37 nmol/l dFe), which is in accordance with values reported elsewhere in remote waters of the Southern Ocean, but lower than those observed in the North Atlantic and North Pacific basins. A strong decoupling was observed between dFe and nutrient cycles at all stations. Particulate Fe levels were generally very low for all SAZ stations ( <0.08-1.38 nmol/l), with higher values observed at stations collected near Tasmania and in the SAZ-N East region. The intrusion of subtropical waters, enriched with Fe from sediments or dust further north, is thought to mediate Fe input to the SAZ-N and STZ areas, while input from below would be the main source of Fe in the PF region. We applied the tracer Fe* (Fe*= [dFe] - R(Fe:p) x [PO43-] where R(Fe:P) is the algal uptake ratio) to estimate the degree to which the water masses were Fe limited. In this study, Fe* tended to be negative and decreased with increasing depths and latitude. Positive Fe* values. indicating Fe sufficiency, were observed in the (near-)surface waters collected in the SAZ-N East and near continental sources, where primary production was higher and ultimately limited by the lack of macro-nutrients, not Fe. Micro-organisms residing in the SAZ-N West and PF on the other hand experienced negative Fe*, indicating a strong co-limitation by low silicic acid concentration and Fe supply (and light in the case of PF).

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