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On Afrocypris barnardi G. O. Sars, 1924 (Ostracoda), a second giant ostracode with additional appendages
Matzke-Karasz, R.; Martens, K. (2007). On Afrocypris barnardi G. O. Sars, 1924 (Ostracoda), a second giant ostracode with additional appendages. Crustaceana 80(5): 603-623. dx.doi.org/10.1163/156854007780765623
In: Crustaceana. Brill Academic Publishers: Leiden; Köln; New York; Boston. ISSN 0011-216X; e-ISSN 1568-5403, meer
Peer reviewed article  

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  • Matzke-Karasz, R.
  • Martens, K.

Abstract
    Afrocypris barnardi G. O. Sars, 1924, a giant temporary pool ostracode from South Africa, is here redescribed, based on new material. It is only the second time that this species has been found. The present morphological analyses show that the copulatory appendages of both sexes have unusual characteristics. In the female, at least three paired appendage-like structures (R-appendages) are associated with the Female Reproductive Organ (FRO). This is the second time that such structures are described from non-marine ostracodes, Liocypris grandis (G. O. Sars, 1924) having six pairs of such structures. The male copulatory organs have a Penile Attachment uniting the proximal sides of both hemipenes, and in Afrocypris barnardi an asymmetrical, finger-like structure is associated with this PA.
    The discovery of female R-appendages in a second species strengthen the interpretation of these structures as (part of) true appendages, and reinforces the hypothesis that the FRO is homologous to more than one ancestral somite. However, it remains unclear how many body segments are involved in the origin of the FRO, and three, five, or even six somites are all possible. In addition, these R-appendages can be ancestral, atavistic, or even apomorphic. The position of the two taxa with such appendages in a phylogeny of the Cyprididae as a whole will constitute a test to discriminate between these three possibilities.

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