|A case study in modeling dispersion of Yperite and CLARK I and II from munitions at Paardenmarkt, Belgium|Francken, F.; Hafez, A.M. (2009). A case study in modeling dispersion of Yperite and CLARK I and II from munitions at Paardenmarkt, Belgium. Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 43(4): 52-61. dx.doi.org/10.4031/MTSJ.43.4.3
In: Marine Technology Society Journal. Marine Technology Society (MTS): Washington, D.C.. ISSN 0025-3324; e-ISSN 1948-1209, meer
Sediment > Soil parent materials > Marine sediments
Yperite; CLARK I and II; Inorganic arsenic; Dispersion modeling; Marine sediments
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A case study focused on modeling the dispersion of Yperite (Sulfur Mustard) and arsenical chemical agents CLARK I and II in sediment from munitions disposed at the Paardenmarkt site, Belgium, is discussed. Based on conceptual models, simulations were run for the dispersion of Yperite and CLARK I and II in marine sediments,generating concentration data for temporal and geographical scales in the event of a leakage from an idealized munition. Based on the simulation, leakage of Yperite from a munition into the surrounding marine sediment will give toxic effects only up to a few centimeters from the munition casing. Utilizing a munition with an estimated 44 g of arsenic for the CLARK I and II simulations, the arsenical degradents at the level of Estimated No Effects Concentration or higher gives a volume of sediments in the shape of a sphere with a radius of 0.5 m in a time period of 10 years; increasing threefold in volume over a period of 100 years.