|Phylogenetic analysis of the Balanidae (Cirripedia, Balanomorpha)|
In: Zoologica Scripta. Blackwell: Stockholm. ISSN 0300-3256; e-ISSN 1463-6409
Balanidae Leach, 1817 [WoRMS]; Balanomorpha [WoRMS]; Cirripedia [WoRMS]
Our concept of the family Balanidae has undergone many changes since it was originally proposed, and it is now a more circumscribed group. Nevertheless, there are no studies of the phylogenetic relationships among its currently recognized subfamilies: Balaninae, Concavinae and Megabalaninae. Here, a new suite of characters is presented, thus allowing a better evaluation of the systematics of the group. A fourth subfamily, the Amphibalaninae, is proposed to accommodate Amphibalanus gen. nov. and its allies, and Perforatus gen. nov. is proposed and transferred to the Concavinae (all formerly Balaninae). A phylogenetic analysis of the Balanidae was performed. The results showed that Balaninae is basal to the other three subfamilies as well as Concavinae, and Megabalaninae forms a monophyletic group. Hypotheses of character evolution are presented and discussed. As a general pattern, Concavinae and Megabalaninae have the most derived structures, such as the extension of the lateral margin of the sheath, inner face of radii with a longitudinal abutment, basis multilayered (vesicular) and a spur with infolded margins.